For those unfamiliar with the work of Marija Gimbutas, whose revolutionary work with archeology in what she called "Old Europe" has had tremendous impact in re-envisioning our "his-story", as she re-discovered the ancient World of the Goddess, wide-spread, long lived, peaceful civilizations that displayed no art or artifacts dedicated to war or conquest, and whose prime Deity was a Goddess, a Great Mother. She believed that this culture was gradually extinguished by waves of Indo-European, horse riding nomads coming west from the Russian steppes - she called them the "Kurgans". They were a very different culture than that of the Old European agriculturalists, with an emphasis upon conquest and "sky Gods" of war. Gimbutas' controversial findings have been challenged by conventional archeologists repeatedly, yet she has influenced a huge following (which includes me).
ADDENDUM: Here is a further related corroborating article someone posted on Facebook:
Also, this Commentary (much better than mine!) from the Association of Study of Women and Mythology(ASWM):
link to full article from the new yorker (excerpt below):
In Iberia during this time (of the "Kurgan" invasions into Old Europe), the local type of Y chromosome was replaced by an entirely different type. Given that the Y chromosome, found only in males, is passed down from father to son, this means that the local male line in Iberia was essentially extinguished. It is likely that the newcomers perpetrated a large-scale killing of local men, boys, and possibly male infants. Any local males remaining must have been subjugated in a way that prevented them from fathering children, or were so strongly disfavored in mate selection over time that their genetic contribution was nullified. The full genetic sequencing, however, indicated that about sixty per cent of the lineage of the local population was passed on, which shows that women were not killed but almost certainly subjected to widespread sexual coercion, and perhaps mass rape.
the Iberian study, the predominant Y chromosome seems to have originated with a
group called the Yamnaya, who arose about five thousand years ago, in the
steppes north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. By adopting the wheel and
the horse, they became powerful and fearsome nomads, expanding westward into
Europe as well as east- and southward into India. They spoke
proto-Indo-European languages, from which most of the languages of Europe and many
South Asian languages now spring. Archeologists have long known about the
spread of the Yamnaya, but almost nothing in the archeological record showed
the brutality of their takeover. “This is an example of the power of ancient
DNA to reveal cultural events,” Reich
also shows how DNA evidence can upset established archeological theories and
bring rejected ones back into contention. The idea that Indo-European languages
emanated from the Yamnaya homeland was established in 1956, by the Lithuanian-American
archeologist Marija Gimbutas. Her view, known as the Kurgan hypothesis—named
for the distinctive burial mounds that spread west across Europe—is now the
most widely accepted theory about Indo-European linguistic origins. But, where
many archeologists envisaged a gradual process of cultural diffusion, Gimbutas
saw “continuous waves of expansion or raids.” As her career progressed, her
ideas became more controversial. In Europe previously, Gimbutas hypothesized,
men and women held relatively equal places in a peaceful, female-centered,
goddess-worshipping society—as evidenced by the famous fertility figurines of
the time. She believed that the nomads from the Caspian steppes imposed a
male-dominated warrior culture of violence, sexual inequality, and social
stratification, in which women were subservient to men and a small number of
élite males accumulated most of the wealth and power.
The DNA from the Iberian skeletons can’t tell us what kind of culture the Yamnaya replaced, but it does much to corroborate Gimbutas’s sense that the descendants of the Yamnaya caused much greater disruption than other archeologists believed. Even today, the Y chromosomes of almost all men of Western European ancestry have a high percentage of Yamnaya-derived genes, suggesting that violent conquest may have been widespread.